As more and more authority DNS servers turn on DNS security extensions (DNSSEC), it becomes increasingly important to understand whether, and how many, DNS resolvers perform DNSSEC validation. In this paper we present a query-based measurement method, called Check-Repeat, to gauge the presence of DNSSEC validating resolvers. Utilizing the fact that most validating resolver implementations retry DNS queries with a different authority server if they receive a bad DNS response, Check-Repeat can identify validating resolvers by removing the signatures from regular DNS responses and observing whether a resolver retries DNS queries.We tested Check-Repeat in different scenarios and our results showed that Check-Repeat can identify validating resolvers with a low error rate. We also cross-checked our measurement results with DNS query logs from.COM and.NET domains, and confirmed that the resolvers measured in our study can account for more than 60% of DNS queries in the Internet. © 2013 IEEE.
Yu, Y., Wessels, D., Larson, M., & Zhang, L. (2013). Check-Repeat: A new method of measuring DNSSEC validating resolvers. In Proceedings - IEEE INFOCOM (pp. 3147–3152). https://doi.org/10.1109/INFCOM.2013.6567129