© 2016 Li et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. The aim of the work was primarily to explore the protective activity pathways of lysine against oxidative damage in fish in vivo and in enterocytes in vitro. First, grass carp were fed diets containing six graded levels of lysine (7.1-19.6 g kg -1 diet) for 56 days. Second, the enterocytes were treated with different concentrations of lysine (0-300 mg/L in media) prior to (pre-treatment), along with (co-treatment) or following (post-treatment) with 6 mg/L of Cu for 24 h. The results indicated that lysine improved grass carp growth performance. Meanwhile, lysine ameliorated lipid and protein oxidation by elevating the gene expression and activity of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathioneperoxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and reductase (GR)), and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) mRNA levels in fish intestine. The in vitro studies showed that coand post-treatment with lysine conferred significant protection against Cu-induced oxidative damage in fish primary enterocytes as measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) OD values, along with alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase activities, and the depletion of protein carbonyl (PC), malondialdehyde (MDA) and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine contents. Moreover, lysine co-treatment decreased the activities and mRNA level of cellular SOD, GPx, GST and GR compared with the Cuonly exposed group. Gene expression of the signalling molecule Nrf2 showed the same pattern as that of SOD activity, whereas Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1b (Keap1b) followed the opposite trend, indicating that co-treatment with lysine induced antioxidant enzymes that protected against oxidative stress through Nrf2 pathway. In addition, posttreatment with lysine increased proteasomal activity and blocked the Cu-stimulated increase in mRNA levels of GST and associated catalase (CAT) and GST activities (P < 0.01 and P < 0.001). GR activity and gene expression, and glutathione (GSH) content followed an opposite trend to GST activity (P < 0.05). Thus, post-treatment of lysine elevated protein and DNA repair abilities and ameliorated the cellular redox state of enterocytes. The overall results suggest that lysine plays a significant role in the protection of fish intestine in vivo and in vitro through the induction of key antioxidant protection.
Li, X. Y., Liu, Y., Jiang, W. D., Jiang, J., Wu, P., Zhao, J., … Feng, L. (2016). Co- and post-treatment with lysine protects primary fish enterocytes against Cu-induced oxidative damage. PLoS ONE, 11(1). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0147408