Comparison of open and endovascular treatments of post-carotid endarterectomy restenosis

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Abstract

Aim of the study: To compare early and long term results of open and endovascular treatment of post-carotid endarterectomy (CEA) restenosis in a single centre experience. Methods: From January 2005 to December 2011, ninety-nine consecutive interventions for primary severe post-CEA restenosis were performed: in 41 cases (41%, Group 1) open repair was carried out, whereas the remaining 58 patients (59%, group 2) underwent an endovascular treatment. Data concerning these interventions were prospectively collected in a dedicated database containing main pre, intra and postoperative variables. Early results in terms of 30-day stroke and death rates were analysed and compared with χ2 test. Follow-up results were analysed with Kaplan Meier curves and compared with log-rank test. Results: Mean time from primary CEA was 75 months in group 1 and 42 months in group 2 (p = 0.002; 95% CI 12-52). There were no differences between the two groups in terms of demographic data, comorbidities, risk factors for atherosclerosis, preoperative clinical status or degree of stenosis on the operated side. In group 1 interventions consisted of redo-CEA in 37 patients and of carotid bypass in the remaining 4; all the patients in group 2 underwent stent placement with cerebral protection device. No perioperative deaths and ipsilateral neurological events occurred in both groups. One patient in group 1 suffered from a non-fatal acute myocardial infarction. Other six patients (14.5%) experienced transient cranial nerve injuries, with complete regression at 1-month follow-up; two patients had postoperative dysphagia due to neck haematoma, which was medically managed. Neither access-related nor systemic complications were recorded in group 2. Follow-up was available in 98% of the patients with a median duration of 24 months (range 3-72). There were no differences in terms of 4-year estimated survival and stroke-free survival, whereas patients in group 1 were more likely to develop severe (>80%) secondary restenosis (28.3% and 6.5%, respectively, p = 0.01, log rank 6.3) and to undergo secondary reintervention (22% and 11%, respectively p = 0.01, log rank 6). Conclusions: despite the selection limits and bias of this study, in our experience open and endovascular surgery provided similar perioperative results in the management of post-CEA restenosis. Long term outcomes are similar, too, despite a slight increase in secondary restenosis and recurrent reinterventions among open surgery patients, warranting further studies and analysis. © 2013 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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Dorigo, W., Pulli, R., Fargion, A., Pratesi, G., Angiletta, D., Aletto, I., … Pratesi, C. (2013). Comparison of open and endovascular treatments of post-carotid endarterectomy restenosis. European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, 45(5), 437–442. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejvs.2013.01.029

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