BACKGROUND Rotavirus is the leading viral agent for pediatric gastroenteritis. However, the case-based surveillance for rotavirus is limited in China, and its circulation in the environment is not well investigated. METHODS From 2013 to 2014, rotavirus was detected in raw sewage samples of Jinan and Linyi by quantitative PCR (qPCR) and conventional reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). After sequenced and genotyped, sequences analysis was conducted. RESULTS A total of 46 sewage samples were collected monthly for the detection of rotavirus, and rotavirus was positive in 43 samples (93.5 %, 43/46). By quantitative assessment, the concentrations of rotavirus in raw sewage ranged from 4.1 × 10(3) to 1.3 × 10(6) genome copies (GC)/L in Jinan, and from 1.5 × 10(3) to 3.0 × 10(5) GC/L in Linyi. A total of 318 sequences of 5 G-genotypes and 318 sequences of 5 P-genotypes were obtained. G9 (91.8 %, 292/318) and P (56.0 %, 178/318) were the most common G- and P-genotype, respectively. Multiple transmission lineages were recognized in these genotypes. Interestingly, an intragenic recombination event between two G9 lineages was observed. CONCLUSIONS This study provided the first report of comprehensive environmental surveillance for rotavirus in China. The results suggest that the concentration of rotavirus in raw sewage was high, and multiple rotavirus transmission lineages continuously co-circulated in Shandong.
Zhou, N., Lv, D., Wang, S., Lin, X., Bi, Z., Wang, H., … Xu, A. (2016). Continuous detection and genetic diversity of human rotavirus A in sewage in eastern China, 2013-2014. Virology Journal, 13(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12985-016-0609-0