Immunotherapy approaches using checkpoint blockade, alone, or in combination with tumor antigen vaccination, or adoptive cell transfer, are emerging as promising approaches for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In preparation for upcoming combined immunotherapy approaches in NSCLC, here, we have assessed spontaneous immune responses to XAGE-1b, a tumor specific antigen of the Cancer Testis Antigen group that has been previously reported to be spontaneously immunogenic in the Japanese population, in a cohort of Caucasian patients with NSCLC. We found spontaneous serological responses to XAGE-1b in 9% of the patients. Importantly, these responses were limited to, and represented 13% of, patients with adenocarcinoma tumors, the most frequent histological subtype, for which immunotherapy approaches are under development. Using a set of overlapping peptides spanning the entire XAGE-1b protein, and in support of the serological data, we detected significant XAGE-1b specific CD4+ T cell responses in all XAGE-1b seropositive patients and identified several CD4+ T cell epitopes. Altogether, our results support the relevance of the XAGE-1b antigen in Caucasians NSCLC patients with adenocarcinoma, and the implementation of future immunotherapies exploiting the high immunogenicity of the antigen in this patient population.
Sardaro, A., Saito, K., Nakayama, E., & Valmori, D. (2016, January 7). Correction: Immune responses to the cancer testis antigen XAGE-1b in non small cell lung cancer caucasian patients. PLoS ONE. Public Library of Science. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0160538