Background: With the advancement in information technology and mobile internet, digital health interventions (DHIs) are improving the care of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). The impact of DHIs on cost-effective management of CVDs has been examined using the decision analytic model–based health technology assessment approach. Objective: The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review of the decision analytic model–based studies evaluating the cost-effectiveness of DHIs on the management of CVDs. Methods: A literature review was conducted in Medline, Embase, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature Complete, PsycINFO, Scopus, Web of Science, Center for Review and Dissemination, and Institute for IEEE Xplore between 2001 and 2018. Studies were included if the following criteria were met: (1) English articles, (2) DHIs that promoted or delivered clinical interventions and had an impact on patients’ cardiovascular conditions, (3) studies that were modeling works with health economic outcomes of DHIs for CVDs, (4) studies that had a comparative group for assessment, and (5) full economic evaluations including a cost-effectiveness analysis, cost-utility analysis, cost-benefit analysis, and cost-consequence analysis. The primary outcome collected was the cost-effectiveness of the DHIs, presented by incremental cost per additional quality-adjusted life year (QALY). The quality of each included study was evaluated using the Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards. Results: A total of 14 studies met the defined criteria and were included in the review. Among the included studies, heart failure (7/14, 50%) and stroke (4/14, 29%) were two of the most frequent CVDs that were managed by DHIs. A total of 9 (64%) studies were published between 2015 and 2018 and 5 (36%) published between 2011 and 2014. The time horizon was ≤1 year in 3 studies (21%), >1 year in 10 studies (71%), and 1 study (7%) did not declare the time frame. The types of devices or technologies used to deliver the health interventions were short message service (1/14, 7%), telephone support (1/14, 7%), mobile app (1/14, 7%), video conferencing system (5/14, 36%), digital transmission of physiologic data (telemonitoring; 5/14, 36%), and wearable medical device (1/14, 7%). The DHIs gained higher QALYs with cost saving in 43% (6/14) of studies and gained QALYs at a higher cost at acceptable incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) in 57% (8/14) of studies. The studies were classified as excellent (0/14, 0%), good (9/14, 64%), moderate (4/14, 29%), and low (1/14, 7%) quality. Conclusions: This study is the first systematic review of decision analytic model–based cost-effectiveness analyses of DHIs in the management of CVDs. Most of the identified studies were published recently, and the majority of the studies were good quality cost-effectiveness analyses with an adequate duration of time frame. All the included studies found the DHIs to be cost-effective.
Jiang, X., Ming, W. K., & You, J. H. S. (2019). The cost-effectiveness of digital health interventions on the management of cardiovascular diseases: Systematic review. Journal of Medical Internet Research. Journal of Medical Internet Research. https://doi.org/10.2196/13166