Critical Elements in Fly Ash from the Combustion of Bituminous Coal in Major Polish Power Plants

  • Bielowicz B
  • Botor D
  • Misiak J
  • et al.
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© 2018 The Authors, published by EDP Sciences. The concentration of critical elements, including such REE as Fe, Co, W, Zn, Cr, Ni, V, Mn, Ti, Ag, Ga, Ta, Sr, Li, and Cu, in the so-called fly ash obtained from the 9 Polish power plants and 1 thermal power station has been determined. The obtained values, compared with the global average concentration in bituminous coal ash and sedimentary rocks (Clarke values), have shown that the enrichment of fly ash in the specified elements takes place in only a few bituminous coal processing sites in Poland. The enrichment factor (EF) is only slightly higher (the same order of magnitude) than the Clarke values. The enrichment factor in relation to the Clarke value in the Earth's crust reached values above 10 in all of the examined ashes for the following elements: Cr, Ni, V, W, and, in some ash samples, also Cu and Zn. The obtained values are low, only slightly higher than the global average concentrations in sedimentary rocks and bituminous coal ashes. The ferromagnetic grains (microspheres) found in bituminous coal fly ashes seem to be the most economically prospective in recovery of selected critical elements. The microanalysis has shown that iron cenospheres and plerospheres in fly ash contain, in addition to enamel and iron oxides (magnetite and hematite), iron spinels enriched in Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, W, and Zn.




Bielowicz, B., Botor, D., Misiak, J., & Wagner, M. (2018). Critical Elements in Fly Ash from the Combustion of Bituminous Coal in Major Polish Power Plants. E3S Web of Conferences, 35, 02003.

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