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Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex endocrine and metabolic disease with unknown pathogenesis. However, the treatment of Diane-35 combined with metformin can improve the endocrine and ovulation of PCOS. In this study, we investigated the effects of Diane-35 combined with metformin (DM) treatment on ovulation and glucose metabolism in a PCOS rat model. Methods: Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups, control group, model group (PCOS group) and Diane-35 combined with metformin (PCOS + DM group). The mRNA expression levels were determined by qRT-PCR. The hormone levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Immunostaining detected the protein levels of lactate dehydrogenase A (LDH-A), pyruvate kinase isozyme M2 (PKM2) and sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) in the ovarian tissues. TNUEL assay was performed to determine cell apoptosis in the PCOS rats. The metabolites in the ovarian tissues were analyzed by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Results: PCOS rats showed an increased in body weight, levels of luteinizing hormone and testosterone and insulin resistance, which was significantly attenuated by the DM treatment. The DM treatment improved disrupted estrous cycle and increased the granulosa cells of the ovary in the PCOS rats. The decreased proliferation and increased cell apoptosis of granulosa cells in the ovarian tissues of PCOS rats were significantly reversed by the DM treatment. The analysis of metabolics revealed that ATP and lactate levels were significantly decreased in PCOS rats, which was recovered by the DM treatment. Furthermore, the expression of LDH-A, PKM2 and SIRT1 was significantly down-regulated in ovarian tissues of the PCOS rats; while the DM treatment significantly increased the expression of LDH-A, PKM2 and SIRT1 in the ovarian tissues of the PCOS rats. Conclusion: In conclusion, our study demonstrated that Diane-35 plus metformin treatment improved the pathological changes in the PCOS rats. Further studies suggest that Diane-35 plus metformin can improve the energy metabolism of the ovary via regulating the glycolysis pathway. The mechanistic studies indicated that the therapeutic effects of Diane-35 plus metformin treatment in the PCOS rats may be associated with the regulation of glycolysis-related mediators including PKM2, LDH-A and SIRT1.
Zhang, S., Tu, H., Yao, J., Le, J., Jiang, Z., Tang, Q., … Lei, X. (2020). Combined use of Diane-35 and metformin improves the ovulation in the PCOS rat model possibly via regulating glycolysis pathway. Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology, 18(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12958-020-00613-z