The aim of this study was to determine the occurrences of the group A rotavirus (RVA), norovirus (NoV) and human adenovirus (HAdV) in the surface waters of an urban lagoon (Rodrigo de Freitas Lagoon) in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. During one year of surveillance, water samples were obtained from the lagoon and other interconnected ecosystems (river and beach). The samples were concentrated using an adsorption-elution method with a negatively charged membrane and tested by qualitative and quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays. RVA was the most prevalent virus detected (24.3%) with a viral load ranging from 3.0 x 101-5.6 x 104 genome copies/L, followed by NoV (18.8%) and HAdV (16.7%). Considering water samples suitable for bathing, according to Escherichia coli criterion (< 2,000 most probable number/100 mL), viruses were detected in 50% (57/114) of them. Physicochemical parameters were also measured and showed possible correlations between turbidity and RVA presence and between pH and NoV presence. These data demonstrate the importance of considering viral parameters to ensure water quality and the utilisation of these parameters as additional tools for the characterisation of environmental contamination.
Vieira, C. B., Mendes, A. C. de O., Guimarães, F. R., Fumian, T. M., Leite, J. P. G., Gaspar, A. M. C., & Miagostovich, M. P. (2012). Detection of enteric viruses in recreational waters of an urban lagoon in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Memorias Do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, 107(6), 778–784. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0074-02762012000600012