The challengers disrupted the existing regime’s rules, policies, and technological trajectories in a process of contestation. The contestation flow of science and technology involves social conflict. Community ophthalmologists created new operating theater management practices and aseptic techniques in a process of challenging knowledge hierarchies. Clinical ophthalmologists fiercely and acrimoniously objected to these new practices and techniques. Contestation involves challenging the incumbent regime’s: research agenda; and science, technology, and management practices. Interlocking innovations provide a strong base from which the challengers can launch repeated attempts to contest the existing regime. This repeated contestationMultilevel Perspective, circular causalitycontestation factures the old regime into an incumbent regime and new regime.
Williams, L. D. A. (2019). Evidence-Based Medicine: Contesting the Phaco-Regime. In Eradicating Blindness (pp. 253–287). Springer Singapore. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-1625-8_8