All drivers have their own distinct driving habits, and usually hold and operate the steering wheel differently in different driving scenarios. In this study, we proposed a novel Gaussian mixture model (GMM)-based method that can improve the traditional GMM in modeling driving behavior. This new method can be applied to build a better driver authentication system based on the accelerometer and orientation sensor of a smartwatch. To demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method, we created an experimental system that analyzes driving behavior using the built-in sensors of a smartwatch. The experimental results for driver authentication-an equal error rate (EER) of 4.62% in the simulated environment and an EER of 7.86% in the real-traffic environment-confirm the feasibility of this approach.
Yang, C. H., Chang, C. C., & Liang, D. (2018). A novel GMM-based behavioral modeling approach for smartwatch-based driver authentication. Sensors (Switzerland), 18(4). https://doi.org/10.3390/s18041007