We spoligotyped and screened 1490 clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex strains from Northern and Greater Accra regions of Ghana against INH and RIF using the microplate alamar blue phenotypic assay. Specific drug resistance associated genetic elements of drug resistant strains were analyzed for mutations. A total of 111 (7.5%), 10 (0.7%) and 40 (2.6%) were mono-resistant to INH, RIF, and MDR, respectively. We found the Ghana spoligotype to be associated with drug resistance (INH: 22.1%; p = 0.0000, RIF: 6.2%; p = 0.0103, MDR: 4.6%; p = 0.0240) as compared to the Cameroon spoligotype (INH: 6.7%, RIF: 2.4%, MDR: 1.6%). The propensity for an isolate to harbour katG S315T mutation was higher in M. tuberculosis (75.8%) than Mycobacterium africanum (51.7%) (p = 0.0000) whereas the opposite was true for inhApro mutations; MAF (48.3%) compared to MTBSS (26.7%) (p = 0.0419). We identified possible novel compensatory INH resistance mutations in inhA (G204D) and ahpCpro (-88G/A and -142G/A) and a novel ndh mutation K32R. We detected two possible rpoC mutations (G332R and V483G), which occurred independently with rpoB S450L, respectively. The study provides the first evidence that associate the Ghana spoligotype with DR-TB and calls for further genome analyses for proper classification of this spoligotype and to explore for fitness implications and mechanisms underlying this observation.
Otchere, I. D., Asante-Poku, A., Osei-Wusu, S., Baddoo, A., Sarpong, E., Ganiyu, A. H., … Yeboah-Manu, D. (2016). Detection and characterization of drug-resistant conferring genes in Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex strains: A prospective study in two distant regions of Ghana. Tuberculosis, 99, 147–154. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tube.2016.05.014