Distinguishing recurrent intra-axial metastatic tumor from radiation necrosis following gamma knife radiosurgery using dynamic susceptibility- weighted contrast-enhanced perfusion MR imaging

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Abstract

Background and Purpose: MR image-guided gamma knife radiosurgery is often used to treat intra-axial metastatic neoplasms. Following treatment, it is often difficult to determine whether a progressively enhancing lesion is due to metastatic tumor recurrence or radiation necrosis. The purpose of our study was to determine whether relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV), relative peak height (rPH), and percentage of signal-intensity recovery (PSR) derived from dynamic susceptibility- weighted contrast-enhanced perfusion MR imaging can distinguish recurrent metastatic tumor from radiation necrosis. Materials and Methods: Twenty-seven patients with systemic cancer underwent gamma knife radiosurgery for metastatic lesions of the brain and subsequently developed enlarging regions of enhancement within the radiation field. Subsequent surgical resection or clinicoradiologic follow-up established a diagnosis of recurrent metastatic tumor or radiation necrosis. Perfusion MR imaging datasets were retrospectively reprocessed, and regions of interest were drawn around the entire contrast-enhancing region. The resulting T2* signal-intensity time curves produced rCBV, rPH, and PSR values for each examination. A Welch t test was used to compare imaging values between groups. Results: The mean, minimum, and maximum PSR values were significantly lower (P <.01) in cases of recurrent metastatic tumor. The mean and maximum rCBV and rPH values were significantly higher (P >.02) in the recurrent metastatic tumor group. Conclusions: The findings of our study suggest that perfusion MR imaging may be used to differentiate recurrent intra-axial metastatic tumor from gamma knife-induced radiation necrosis.

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Barajas, R. F., Chang, J. S., Sneed, P. K., Segal, M. R., McDermott, M. W., & Cha, S. (2009). Distinguishing recurrent intra-axial metastatic tumor from radiation necrosis following gamma knife radiosurgery using dynamic susceptibility- weighted contrast-enhanced perfusion MR imaging. American Journal of Neuroradiology, 30(2), 367–372. https://doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A1362

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