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Background: Propionic acid (PA) is used as a food preservative and increasingly, as a precursor for the synthesis of monomers. PA is produced mainly through hydrocarboxylation of ethylene, also known as the 'oxo-process'; however, Propionibacterium species are promising biological PA producers natively producing PA as their main fermentation product. However, for fermentation to be competitive, a PA yield of at least 0.6 g/g is required. Results: A new strain able to reach the required yield was obtained using genome shuffling. To gain insight into the changes leading to the improved phenotype, the genome of the new strain was sequenced, and metabolomics and transcriptomics data were obtained. In combination, the data revealed three key mutations: (i) a mutation in the promoter region of a sugar transporter which enables an increase in the uptake rate of sucrose; (ii) a mutation in a polar amino acid transporter which improves consumption of amino acids and acid tolerance; and (iii) a mutation in a gene annotated as a cytochrome C biogenesis gene, which is likely responsible for the coupling of the Wood-Werkman cycle to ATP production were responsible for the phenotype. The bioprocess was further enhanced with a feeding strategy that achieved 70 g/L of product. The proposed bioprocess is expected to outperform the economics of the current 'oxo-process' by 2020. Conclusions: In this study, using genome shuffling, we obtained a strain capable of producing PA exceeding the commercial needs. The multiomics comparison between the novel strain and the wild type revealed overexpression of amino acid pathways, changes in sucrose transporters and an increased activity in the methylglyoxal and the glucuronate interconversion pathways. The analysis also suggests that a mutation in the cytochrome C biogenesis gene, coupled with ATP production through the Wood-Werkman cycle, may be responsible for the increased PA production.
Luna-Flores, C. H., Stowers, C. C., Cox, B. M., Nielsen, L. K., & Marcellin, E. (2018). Linking genotype and phenotype in an economically viable propionic acid biosynthesis process. Biotechnology for Biofuels, 11(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13068-018-1222-9