Effects of Royal Jelly and Tocotrienol Rich Fraction in obesity treatment of calorie-restricted obese rats: A focus on white fat browning properties and thermogenic capacity

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Abstract

Background: Obesity has reached an alarming rate worldwide. Promoting thermogenesis via increasing the function of brown adipose tissue (BAT) or white adipose tissue (WAT) browning has been proposed as a new protective approach against obesity. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of Royal Jelly (RJ) and tocotrienol rich fraction (TRF) on BAT activation and WAT browning during calorie restriction diet (CRD) in obesity model. Methods: In this experimental study, 50 obese Wistar rats were randomly divided into 5 groups and then received one of the following treatments for a period of 8-week: High-fat diet (HFD), CRD, RJ + CRD, TRF + CRD, and RJ + TRF + CRD. Effects of RJ and TRF, individually and in combination on body weight and the expression of key thermoregulatory genes in WAT and BAT were examined by quantitative real-time (qRT-PCR). Also, morphological alterations were assessed by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Results: RJ (- 67.21 g ±4.84 g) and RJ + TRF (- 73.29 g ±4.51 g) significantly reduced weight gain relative to the CRD group (- 40.70 g ±6.50 g, P < 0.001). In comparison with the CRD group, RJ and RJ + TRF remarkably enhanced the uncoupling protein1 (UCP1) expression in WAT (5.81, 4.72 fold, P < 0.001) and BAT (4.99, 4.75 fold, P < 0.001). The expression of PR domain containing 16(PRDM 16), cAMP response element-binding protein1 (CREB1), P38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (P38MAPK), and Bone morphogenetic protein8B (BMP8B) have significantly increased following RJ and RJ + TRF treatments (P < 0.001). However, the expression levels of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta (CEBPβ) and Bone morphogenetic protein7 (BMP7) did not remarkably change. Multilocular beige cells in WAT and compacted dense adipocytes were also observed in BAT of RJ and RJ + TRF received groups. TRF showed no substantial effects on the expression of the mentioned thermoregulatory genes and brown fat-like phenotype. Conclusion: Our results suggest that, Royal Jelly promotes thermogenesis and browning of WAT, contributing to an increase in energy expenditure. Thus, Royal Jelly may give rise to a novel dietary choice to attenuate obesity.

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Mesri Alamdari, N., Irandoost, P., Roshanravan, N., Vafa, M., Asghari Jafarabadi, M., Alipour, S., … Shidfar, F. (2020). Effects of Royal Jelly and Tocotrienol Rich Fraction in obesity treatment of calorie-restricted obese rats: A focus on white fat browning properties and thermogenic capacity. Nutrition and Metabolism, 17(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12986-020-00458-8

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