For realizing the Semantic Web vision, extensive work is underway for getting the layers of its conceived architecture ready. Given that the Ontology Layer has reached a certain level of maturity with W3C recommendations such as RDF and the OWL Web Ontology Language, current interest focuses on the Rules Layer and its integration with the Ontology Layer. Several proposals have been made for solving this problem, which does not have a straightforward solution due to various obstacles. One of them is the fact that evaluation principles like the closed-world assumption, which is common in rule languages, are usually not adopted in ontologies. Furthermore, naively adding rules to ontologies raises undecidability issues. In this paper, after giving a brief overview about the current state of the Semantic-Web stack and its components, we will discuss nonmonotonic logic programs under the answer-set semantics as a possible formalism of choice for realizing the Rules Layer. We will briefly discuss open issues in combining rules and ontologies, and survey some existing proposals to facilitate reasoning with rules and ontologies. We will then focus on description-logic programs (or dl-programs, for short), which realize a transparent integration of rules and ontologies supported by existing reasoning engines, based on the answer-set semantics. We will further discuss a generalization of dl-programs, viz. HEX-programs, which offer access to different ontologies as well as higher-order language constructs. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2006.
Eiter, T., Ianni, G., Polleres, A., Schindlauer, R., & Tompits, H. (2006). Reasoning with rules and ontologies. In Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) (Vol. 4126 LNCS, pp. 93–127). Springer Verlag. https://doi.org/10.1007/11837787_4