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Ice cream and related products

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Ice cream is a frozen food made of a mixture of dairy products, such as milk, cream, and nonfat milk, combined with sugars, flavoring, and inclusions, such as fruits and nuts. Functional ingredients, such as stabilizers and emulsifiers, are often included in the product to promote proper texture and enhance the eating experience. According to U.S. standards, ice cream must contain at least 10% milkfat, before the addition of bulky ingredients, and must weigh a minimum of 4.5 pounds to the gallon. Ice cream containing at least 1.4% egg yolk is called French ice cream or frozen custard. Super-premium ice cream is a denser product because it contains 16-18% milkfat and low overrun (20-50% range). Ice creams with reduced fat levels, which are described later in this chapter, contain the same ingredients as regular ice cream and follow the labeling guidelines established by FDA. Soft-serve ice cream is a frozen dessert that is soft frozen just before serving on the premises, so the formulas differ from hard-frozen products. The fat content of soft-serve mixes is in the range of 4-12%, and the serum solids vary inversely from 11 to 14% with fat content (Marshall et al., 2003). Ice cream is one of the most popular desserts in the U.S., with approximately 5.83 billion liters (1.54 billion gal) produced in 2005 (IDFA, 2006). Most of the ice cream produced in the U.S. is the hard-frozen type, but the production of soft serve has increased over the past decade. U.S. per capita consumption of ice cream, sherbet, and other commercially produced frozen dairy products was 21.95 L (20.33 quarts) in 2005. It is estimated that 98% of all U.S. households purchase ice cream (IDFA, 2006). Ice cream and related products are members of the "frozen dairy desserts family" and are defined in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 21, Part 135. These frozen desserts are defined as follows: "Reduced fat" ice cream contains at least 25% less total fat than the referenced product (either an average of leading brands or the company's own brand). "Light" ice cream contains at least 50% less total fat or 33% fewer calories than the referenced product (the average of leading regional or national brands). "Low-fat" ice cream contains a maximumof 3 g of total fat per serving (1/2 cup). "Nonfat" ice cream contains less than 0.5 g of total fat serving. Mellorine is a food similar to ice cream but having the milkfat replaced in whole or part with vegetable or animal fat. FDA Standard of Identity (21 CFR 135.130) specifies that it contains not less than 6% fat and 2.7% protein. The milk-derived protein has a protein efficiency not less than that of milk protein. For mellorine containing bulky-flavoring agents, the minimal content of fat and protein is calculated in the same way as for ice cream. Vitamin A must be present at the rate of 40 IU per gram of fat (Marshall et al., 2003). Sherbets have a milkfat content of between 1 and 2%, and slightly higher sweetener content than ice cream. Sherbet weighs a minimum 6 pounds to the gallon and is flavored either with fruit or other characterizing ingredients. Water ices are similar to sherbets, but contain no dairy ingredients. Each product category may differ in the type of flavoring, the composition in terms of dairy ingredients and other food solids, and the extent of product overrun (increase in ice cream volume due to air incorporation). Table 10.1 summarizes the compositional differences of the major classes of frozen dairy desserts. The optional milk ingredients that these frozen dairy desserts may contain are listed in Table 10.2. Within the restrictions imposed by the 2006 CFR, 21CFR135 (Table 10.1), ice cream is basically defined as that food produced as a result of freezing, while stirring, a pasteurized mix that consists of one or more of the dairy ingredients listed in Table 10.2 and other non-milkderived ingredients (that are safe and suitable). The latter serve functions such as nutritive carbohydrate sweeteners, stabilizers, emulsifiers, flavorings, and coloring agents. © 2009Springer-Verlag New York.




Alvarez, V. B. (2009). Ice cream and related products. In The Sensory Evaluation of Dairy Products (pp. 271–331). Springer US.

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