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Background: Sex chromosomal aneuploidies in males are rare diseases with an overwhelming involvement of endocrinological and auxological issues; less frequently, other anomalies are observed. Neuroradiological issues are often not taken into account in single patients, and neuroradiological examinations are rarely performed. Case presentation: Here, we report a boy with 48,XXXY/49,XXXXY mosaicism, phenotypically characterized by hypotonia, intellectual disability, ventricular septal defect, micropenis, and with mild hypertelorism, inverted nipples, a congenital hip dysplasia, and some neuroradiological features so far not described. The Magnetic Resonance Imaging showed white matter abnormalities and enlargement of lateral ventricles with never described dysmorphisms of cranio-cervical junction and posterior fossa. A cranio-cervical Computerized Tomography confirmed a dysmorphic aspect of the posterior fossa and occipital condyles, slight morphological asymmetry of C1 and slight lateralization to the right of the odontoid's apex. Conclusions: Considering the possible relevant clinical impact of these findings, the neuroradiological assessment seems potentially useful to the diagnostic approach of these patients.
Milani, D., Bonarrigo, F., Avignone, S., Triulzi, F., & Esposito, S. (2015). 48, XXXY/49, XXXXY mosaic: New neuroradiological features in an ultra-rare syndrome. Italian Journal of Pediatrics, 41(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13052-015-0156-0