Refractive errors and risk factors for myopia in infants aged 1–18 months in Tianjin, China

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Background: Infancy is the of a child’s visual development. Refractive errors, especially myopia, are a common vision disorder. Thus, the purpose of this study was to explore refractive errors and risk factors for myopia among infants aged 1–18 months in Tianjin, China. Methods: A total of 583 infants aged 1–18 months participated in this cross-sectional study at Tianjin Women’s and Children’s Health Center in China from February 2019 to November 2020. Each infant received a complete ophthalmologic examination, and myopia-related risk factors were investigated using a questionnaire. Results: A total of 583 eligible infants participated in this study, including 312 (53.5%) boys and 271 (46.5%) girls. There were 164 (28.1%) premature born infants. The mean age was 6.59 ± 4.84 months (range, 1–18 months). The mean spherical equivalent (MSE) for the right eye was 1.81 D ± 1.56 D, with no difference related to sex (P = 0.104). Refractive state showed an average hyperopia of +2.74 ± 1.74 D at early ages, followed by a trend toward less hyperopia, finally reaching +1.35 ± 1.44 D at the age of 18 months (P ≤0.001). The overall prevalence rates of myopia (MSE ≤ −0.50 D), emmetropia (−0.50 D <0.001, respectively). Conclusions: Among Chinese infants in Tianjin, hyperopia and astigmatism were the most frequent refractive errors, and the diopter was lower in individuals with higher age. In a small number of infants with myopia, genetic factors and the prenatal environment were associated with the early onset of myopia.




Huo, L., Qi, Y., & Zhao, S. (2021). Refractive errors and risk factors for myopia in infants aged 1–18 months in Tianjin, China. BMC Ophthalmology, 21(1).

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