Aim: To identify differences between sexes in the clinical profile, use of resources, management and outcome in a large population of 'real world' patients with heart failure (HF). Methods: A prospective cross-sectional survey was conducted on 2127 consecutive patients (47% women) admitted with HF to 167 cardiology and 250 internal medicine departments between February 14 and 25, 2000. Results: Women were older, had a higher prevalence of atrial fibrillation, and more frequently a hypertensive or valvular aetiology. Females were admitted more frequently in Medical than in Cardiology Departments. The rate of invasive and non-invasive procedures was lower in women than in men, slightly higher if managed by cardiologists. Women were less frequently prescribed ACE-inhibitors, amiodarone, and spironolactone, and more frequently prescribed digoxin. In-hospital mortality was similar, without difference between health-care providers. A 6-month follow-up was performed in 56.4% of the cases in both setting, but less frequently in women. Event rates were similar with nearly half of patients re-hospitalised at least once. Conclusion: The 'real' HF woman has generally a more severe disease; she is an old lady who is more frequently hospitalised in a medical unit, receives few diagnostic, and cardiovascular procedures and pharmacological therapy, has a relatively low probability of dying in hospital, but a high likelihood of requiring readmission. © 2004 European Society of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Opasich, C., De Feo, S., Ambrosio, G. A., Bellis, P., Di Lenarda, A., Di Tano, G., … Maggioni, A. P. (2004, October). The “real” woman with heart failure. Impact of sex on current in-hospital management of heart failure by cardiologists and internists. European Journal of Heart Failure. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejheart.2003.11.021