Abstract This paper identifies the Spaniards’ involvement in the opium trade in China at the beginning of the 19th century. Several sources have been consulted, mainly the Jardine Matheson Archive at the University of Cambridge and the Archivo General de Indias in Seville. These activities took place from the end of the Manila Galleon until 1830, and were undertaken by some employees of the Spanish Royal Philippine Company in Calcutta and Canton in their private businesses. These houses collaborated closely with the British firms during the opium boom, and Manila private financial support was provided. Thus, Spaniards undoubtedly made a fundamental contribution during a key stage of development of the opium economy and evolution of modern Chinese history, being a precedent of what became the prestigious British company Jardine, Matheson & Co.
Permanyer-Ugartemendia, A. (2014). Opium after the Manila Galleon: The Spanish involvement in the opium economy in East Asia (1815-1830). Investigaciones de Historia Económica - Economic History Research, 10(3), 155–164. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ihe.2014.07.001