This article is free to access.
Background: Malaria, Dengue and Chikungunya are vector borne diseases with shared endemic profiles and symptoms. Coinfections with any of these diseases could have fatal outcomes if left undiagnosed. Understanding the prevalence and distribution of coinfections is necessary to improve diagnosis and designing therapeutic interventions. Methods: We have carried out a systematic search of the published literature based on PRISMA guidelines to identify cases of Malaria, Dengue and Chikungunya coinfections. We systematically reviewed the literature to identify eligible studies and extracted data regarding cases of coinfection from cross sectional studies, case reports, retrospective studies, prospective observational studies and surveillance reports. Results: Care full screening resulted in 104 publications that met the eligibility criteria and reported Malaria/Dengue, Dengue/Chikungunya, Malaria/Chikungunya and Malaria/Dengue/Chikungunya coinfections. These coinfections were spread over six geographical locations and 42 different countries and are reported more frequently in the last 15 years possibly due to expanding epidemiology of Dengue and Chikungunya. Few of these reports have also analysed distinguishing features of coinfections. Malaria/Dengue coinfections were the most common coinfection followed by Dengue/Chikungunya, Malaria/Chikungunya and Malaria/Dengue/Chikungunya coinfections. P. falciparum and P. vivax were the commonest species found in cases of malaria coinfections and Dengue serotype-4 commonest serotype in cases of dengue coinfections. Most studies were reported from India. Nigeria and India were the only two countries from where all possible combinations of coinfections were reported. Conclusion: We have comprehensively reviewed the literature associated with cases of coinfections of three important vector borne diseases to present a clear picture of their prevalence and distribution across the globe. The frequency of coinfections presented in the study suggests proper diagnosis, surveillance and management of cases of coinfection to avoid poor prognosis of the underlying etiology.
Salam, N., Mustafa, S., Hafiz, A., Chaudhary, A. A., Deeba, F., & Parveen, S. (2018, June 8). Global prevalence and distribution of coinfection of malaria, dengue and chikungunya: A systematic review. BMC Public Health. BioMed Central Ltd. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-018-5626-z