Background: Theileria uilenbergi and T. luwenshuni are tick-borne protozoan parasites, transmitted by Haemaphysalis qinghaiensis and H. longicornis, respectively. They are the main causative agents of theileriosis in small ruminants in China. The disease has resulted in severe economic losses and hindered the development of sheep and goat husbandry industry in the endemic regions. Methods: In this study, a colloidal gold-based immunochromatographic strip (ICS) was developed for the detection of T. uilenbergi and/or T. luwenshuni infections. A recombinant T. uilenbergi immunodominant protein (rTuIP) was used as antigen for the ICS. The nitrocellulose membrane was incubated with rTuIP on the test (T) line and anti-rTuIP antiserum on the control (C) line, respectively. The rTuIP conjugated to colloidal gold particles was used as the detection system for visualization of the lines. Then the sample pad, conjugate pad, nitrocellulose membrane and absorbent pad were assembled onto a backing plate in the appropriate order. Results: The ICS was able to detect antibodies in the sera of animals experimentally infected with T. uilenbergi from 14 to 85 days. It also reacted with the serum from T. luwenshuni infected sheep. However, there was no cross-reactivity with sera from animals infected with Babesia motasi and Anaplasma ovis. Comparison of the ICS with the rTuIP antigen based indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) using test field samples showed good correlations with 93.1 % (81/87) sensitivity and 100 % (40/40) specificity, respectively, with an almost perfect agreement (Kappa = 0.895, P < 0.01). Conclusion: An immunochromatographic strip test based on a recombinant T. uilenbergi immunodominant protein (rTuIP) was developed. This is a rapid test (approximately 15 min to completion) for the detection of T. uilenbergi and/or T. luwenshuni infection that is easy to perform and; delivers results that are visible to the naked eye.
Lu, Y., Guan, G., Jiang, T., Li, Y., Yang, J., Liu, G., … Liu, Z. (2015). Development of an immunochromatographic strip for the serodiagnosis of Theileria infection in sheep. Parasites and Vectors, 8(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-015-1234-2