Although the concept of optimal foraging has been extensively discussed, foraging efficiency is difficult to assess in vertebrates. In this study, we determined the foraging efficiency of the Brazilian cormorant, Nannopterum brasilianus Gmelin, 1789, by the direct, ad libitum observation of a group of four to thirteen individuals in an artificial pond at the University of São Paulo, Piracicaba, state of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. Although this study was carried out in a highly anthropic environment, we can still conclude that the Brazilian cormorant is a relatively efficient browser and short-term diver. In anthropic environments, foraging success depends on the amount of time these birds spend diving, and stealing food is less common. Stealing occurs at relatively low rates but tends to be an efficient way to get food.
Gheler-Costa, C., Comin, F. H., Gilli, L. C., & Verdade, L. M. (2018). Foraging behavior of Brazilian cormorant, nannopterum brasilianus (Suliformes: Phalacrocoracidae). Zoologia, 35. https://doi.org/10.3897/zoologia.35.e14664