Early detection of glutaric aciduria type I by newborn screening in Taiwan

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Abstract

Background/Purpose: Glutaric aciduria type 1 (GA1) is an inborn error of lysine and tryptophan metabolism. There is a lack of initial diagnostic signs of the disease, but late treatment often results in severe neurologic impairment. In this study, we analyzed the results of screening for GAI in a Chinese population. Methods: Dry blood spots were obtained at about 3 days of age from 357,307 newborns and tested for elevation of glutaryl (C5DC)-carnitine by tandem mass spectroscopy. A second sample of blood spots was required from those cases with abnormal elevation of C5DC-carnitine (higher than the cut-off value) (recall). If the results remained abnormal, those cases were referred for confirmation of the diagnosis and treatment. Results: Between August 2001 and February 2005, there were 40 cases with C5DC-carnitine more than 0.13 μM (the cut-off value), from whom a second sample of blood spots was obtained (recall rate, 0.02%); two cases were confirmed to be affected by GAL Because of the low positive prediction rate using this cut-off value, we elevated the cut-off value slightly. Between February 2005 and August 2006, there were eight cases with C5DC-carnitine more than 0.22 μM from whom a second sample of blood spots was obtained (recall rate, 0.01%); three cases were confirmed to be affected by GA1. All five cases with persistent elevation of C5DC-carnitine were referred and diagnosis was confirmed in each, giving an incidence of 1 in 71,461 newborns. There were no false negatives. Magnetic resonance imaging studies obtained from four cases showed frontotemporal atrophy at the time of diagnosis. Two cases were followed for over 1 year, and under treatment with dietary control and carnitine supplementation, both had normal development and neither exhibited a frank episode of encephalopathic crisis. Conclusion: With properly established cut-offs, GAI can be successfully screened for in populations with a low incidence of the disease. Early treatment is likely to improve the outcome of cases discovered by screening. © 2008 Elsevier & Formosan Medical Association.

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APA

Hsieh, C. T., Hwu, W. L., Huang, Y. T., Huang, A. C., Wang, S. F., Hu, M. H., & Chien, Y. H. (2008). Early detection of glutaric aciduria type I by newborn screening in Taiwan. Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, 107(2), 139–144. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0929-6646(08)60127-8

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