Developing a COVID-19 module for the European Social Survey

  • Hanson T
  • Helbling M
  • Maxwell R
  • et al.
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This short report describes the development of a COVID-19 module for Round 10 of the European Social Survey (ESS). The module is formed of 20 items, including 10 agreed with ESS National Coordinators and 10 developed by two academic teams following an external call for content. The majority of ESS participating countries will field the module for Round 10 fieldwork in 2020–2021. This report provides the rationale for the module, presents challenges of developing such a module for ESS, and gives an overview of the question development and testing process. The two external sub-modules— Government authority and legitimacy in the age of a pandemic and COVID-19 conspiracy beliefs and government rule compliance —are also introduced.




Hanson, T., Helbling, M., Maxwell, R., Traunmüller, R., Gemenis, K., & Littvay, L. (2021). Developing a COVID-19 module for the European Social Survey. Measurement Instruments for the Social Sciences, 3(1).

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