OBJECTIVE - To assess the independent and joint effects of the components of the metabolic syndrome, including leptin, which is a recently proposed addition to this syndrome, in predicting the cumulative incidence of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and diabetes among individuals with normal glucose tolerance. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - This prospective study involved 2,605 residents of Mauritius with normal glucose tolerance who were followed for 5 years for IGT or diabetes onset in relation to total and regional adiposity (BMI, waist-to-hip ratio [WHR]), fasting and 2-h 75-g oral glucose load glucose and insulin, total and HDL cholesterol, blood pressure, serum uric acid, triglyceride, and leptin levels. RESULTS - A multivariate logistic regression model adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, and diabetes family history showed a significantly higher linear increase in risk of IGT and diabetes in association with the following variables only: fasting glucose (odds ratio 1.89 [95% CI 1.51-2.34]), 2-h glucose (1.68 [1.50-1:88]), WHR (1.30 [1.10-1.52]), BMI (1.04 [1.00-1.08]), and serum uric acid (1.37 [1.20-1.57]). However, a nonlinear increase was seen with serum triglyceride and plasma leptin concentrations. No risk factors resulted in joint effects that were greater than expected from combining individual effects. CONCLUSIONS - Metabolic syndrome features independently predict a higher risk of diabetes or IGT in normoglycemic subjects but in combination confer no higher-than-expected risk of these outcomes. At higher concentrations of triglycerides and leptin, risk plateaus and even declines slightly.
Boyko, E. J., De Courten, M., Zimmet, P. Z., Chitson, P., Tuomilehto, J., & Alberti, K. G. M. M. (2000). Features of the metabolic syndrome predict higher risk of diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance: A prospective study in Mauritius. Diabetes Care, 23(9), 1242–1248. https://doi.org/10.2337/diacare.23.9.1242