Comparison of the new Exponential Injury Severity Score with the Injury Severity Score and the New Injury Severity Score in trauma patients: A cross-sectional study

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Abstract

Objective: To compare Exponential Injury Severity Score (EISS) with Injury Severity Score (ISS) and New Injury Severity Score (NISS) in terms of their predictive capability of the outcomes and medical expenses of hospitalized adult trauma patients. Setting: This study was based at a level I trauma center in Taiwan. Methods: Data for 17,855 adult patients hospitalized from January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2015 were retrieved from the Trauma Registry System. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes were the hospital length of stay (LOS), intensive care unit (ICU) admission rate, ICU LOS, and medical expenses. Chi-square tests were used for categorical variables to determine the significance of the associations between the predictor and outcome variables. Student t-tests were applied to analyze normally distributed data for continuous variables, while Mann-Whitney U tests were used to compare non-normally distributed data. Results: According to the survival rate-to-severity score relationship curve, we grouped all adult trauma patients based on EISS scores of ≥ 27, 9–26, and < 9. Significantly higher mortality rates were noted in patients with EISS ≥ 27 and those with EISS of 9–26 when compared to patients with EISS < 9; this finding concurred to the findings for groups classified by the ISS and NISS with the cut-off points set between 25 and 16. The hospital LOS, ICU admission rates, and medical expenses for patients with EISS ≥ 27 and patients with EISS of 9–26 were also significantly longer and higher than that of patients with EISS < 9. When comparing the demographics and detailed medical expenses of very severely injured adult trauma patients classified according to ISS, NISS, and EISS, patients with ISS ≥ 25 and NISS ≥ 25 both had significantly lower mortality rates, lower ICU admission rates, and shorter ICU LOS compared to patients with EISS ≥ 27. Conclusions: EISS 9 and 27 can serve as two cut-off points regarding injury severity, and patients with EISS ≥ 27 have the greatest injury severity. Additionally, these patients have the highest mortality rate, the highest ICU admission rate, and the longest ICU LOS compared to those with ISS ≥ 25 and NISS ≥ 25, suggesting that patients with EISS ≥ 27 have the worst outcome.

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Kuo, S. C. H., Kuo, P. J., Chen, Y. C., Chien, P. C., Hsieh, H. Y., & Hsieh, C. H. (2017). Comparison of the new Exponential Injury Severity Score with the Injury Severity Score and the New Injury Severity Score in trauma patients: A cross-sectional study. PLoS ONE, 12(11). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0187871

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