Here, we report a resistance mechanism that is induced through the modulation of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) processing on the exposure of Escherichia coli cells to aminoglycoside antibiotics. We observed decreased expression levels of RNase G associated with increased RNase III activity on rng mRNA in a subgroup of E coli isolates that transiently acquired resistance to low levels of kanamycin or streptomycin. Analyses of 16S rRNA from the aminoglycoside- resistant E coli cells, in addition to mutagenesis studies, demonstrated that the accumulation of 16S rRNA precursors containing 3-8 extra nucleotides at the 5' terminus, which results from incomplete processing by RNase G, is responsible for the observed aminoglycoside resistance. Chemical protection, mass spectrometry analysis and cell-free translation assays revealed that the ribosomes from rng-deleted E coli have decreased binding capacity for, and diminished sensitivity to, streptomycin and neomycin, compared with wildtype cells. It was observed that the deletion of rng had similar effects in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strain SL1344. Our findings suggest that modulation of the endoribonucleolytic activity of RNase III and RNase G constitutes a previously uncharacterized regulatory pathway for adaptive resistance in E coli and related gram-negative bacteria to aminoglycoside antibiotics. © 2014 The Author(s). Published by Oxford University Press.
Song, W., Kim, Y. H., Sim, S. H., Hwang, S., Lee, J. H., Lee, Y., … Lee, K. (2014). Antibiotic stress-induced modulation of the endoribonucleolytic activity of RNase III and RNase G confers resistance to aminoglycoside antibiotics in Escherichia coli. Nucleic Acids Research, 42(7), 4669–4681. https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/gku093