Rigorous science: A how-to guide

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Proposals to improve the reproducibility of biomedical research have emphasized scientific rigor. Although the word "rigor" is widely used, there has been little specific discussion as to what it means and how it can be achieved. We suggest that scientific rigor combines elements of mathematics, logic, philosophy, and ethics. We propose a framework for rigor that includes redundant experimental design, sound statistical analysis, recognition of error, avoidance of logical fallacies, and intellectual honesty. These elements lead to five actionable recommendations for research education.




Casadevall, A., & Fang, F. C. (2016). Rigorous science: A how-to guide. MBio. American Society for Microbiology. https://doi.org/10.1128/mBio.01902-16

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