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Cytochrome P450 metabolic resistance (CYP6P9a) to pyrethroids imposes a fitness cost in the major African malaria vector Anopheles funestus

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Abstract

Metabolic resistance threatens the sustainability of pyrethroid-based malaria control interventions. Elucidating the fitness cost and potential reversal of metabolic resistance is crucial to design suitable resistance management strategies. Here, we deciphered the fitness cost associated with the CYP6P9a (P450-mediated metabolic resistance) in the major African malaria vector Anopheles funestus. Reciprocal crosses were performed between a pyrethroid susceptible (FANG) and resistant (FUMOZ-R) laboratory strains and the hybrid strains showed intermediate resistance. Genotyping the CYP6P9a-R resistance allele in oviposited females revealed that CYP6P9a negatively impacts the fecundity as homozygote susceptible mosquitoes (CYP6P9a-SS) lay more eggs than heterozygote (OR = 2.04: P = 0.01) and homozygote resistant mosquitoes. CYP6P9a also imposes a significant fitness cost on the larval development as homozygote resistant larvae (CYP6P9a-RR) developed significantly slower than heterozygote and homozygote susceptible mosquitoes (χ2 = 11.2; P = 0.0008). This fitness cost was further supported by the late pupation of homozygote resistant than susceptible mosquitoes (OR = 2.50; P < 0.01). However, CYP6P9a does not impact the longevity as no difference was observed in the life span of mosquitoes with different genotypes (χ2 = 1.6; P = 0.9). In this hybrid strain, a significant decrease of the resistant CYP6P9a-RR genotype was observed after ten generations (χ2 = 6.6; P = 0.01) suggesting a reversal of P450-based resistance in the absence of selection. This study shows that the P450-mediated metabolic resistance imposes a high fitness cost in malaria vectors supporting that a resistance management strategy based on rotation could help mitigate the impact of such resistance.

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Tchouakui, M., Riveron Miranda, J., Mugenzi, L. M. J., Djonabaye, D., Wondji, M. J., Tchoupo, M., … Wondji, C. S. (2020). Cytochrome P450 metabolic resistance (CYP6P9a) to pyrethroids imposes a fitness cost in the major African malaria vector Anopheles funestus. Heredity, 124(5), 621–632. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41437-020-0304-1

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