Effect of empiric anti-mycobacterium tuberculosis therapy on survival among human immunodeficiency virus-infected adults admitted with sepsis to a regional referral hospital in Uganda

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Abstract

Background. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the leading cause of bloodstream infection among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with sepsis in sub-Saharan Africa and is associated with high mortality rates. Methods. We conducted a retrospective study of HIV-infected adults with sepsis at the Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital in Uganda to measure the proportion who received antituberculosis therapy and to determine the relationship between antituberculosis therapy and 28-day survival. Results. Of the 149 patients evaluated, 74 (50%) had severe sepsis and 48 (32%) died. Of the 55 patients (37%) who received antituberculosis therapy, 19 (35%) died, compared with 29 of 94 (31%) who did not receive such therapy (odds ratio, 1.34; 95% confidence interval [CI], .56-3.18; P = .64). The 28-day survival rates did not differ significantly between these 2 groups (log-rank test, P = .21). Among the 74 patients with severe sepsis, 9 of 26 (35%) who received antituberculosis therapy died, versus 23 of 48 (48%) who did not receive such therapy (odds ratio, 0.58; 95% CI, .21-1.52; P = .27). In patients with severe sepsis, antituberculosis therapy was associated with an improved 28-day survival rate (log-rank test P = .01), and with a reduced mortality rate in a Cox proportional hazards model (hazard ratio, 0.32; 95% CI, .13-.80; P = .03). Conclusions. Empiric antituberculosis therapy was associated with improved survival rates among patients with severe sepsis, but not among all patients with sepsis.

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Hazard, R. H., Kagina, P., Kitayimbwa, R., Male, K., McShane, M., Mubiru, D., … Abdallah, A. (2019). Effect of empiric anti-mycobacterium tuberculosis therapy on survival among human immunodeficiency virus-infected adults admitted with sepsis to a regional referral hospital in Uganda. Open Forum Infectious Diseases, 6(4). https://doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofz140

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