The growth behaviour of small fatigue cracks has been studied in both fine- and coarse-grained versions of a pure titanium under axial loading at stress ratio, R, of -1. The growth behaviour and its statistical properties in a coarse-grained version of a different pure titanium have also been investigated under rotating bending (R = -1), and the results obtained were compared with those of a fine-grained version of this titanium in a previous report. Under both loading conditions, small cracks grew faster than large cracks. As the growth data were plotted in terms of the effective stress intensity factor range ΔKeff (after allowing for crack closure, the growth rates could be well correlated with large-crack data in a large-crack regime. In a small-crack regime, however, small cracks still grew faster than large cracks. Small cracks in coarse-grained material showed higher growth rates than those in fine-grained material owing to a much smaller effect of microstructure such as grain boundaries and crack deflection. Stage I facets were observed in all the specimens tested, and their depths were less than the maximum grain size estimated by the statistics of the extreme values, but the distribution of stage I facet depths approximately corresponded to the maximum value distributions of grain size of the materials. The growth rates of small cracks followed log-normal distributions independent of grain size. The coefficients of variation, η, of growth rate in coarse-grained material were smaller than those in fine-grained material. The η values were significantly large at a/d ≤ 3 (a = crack depth, d = grain size), indicating that the relative size of microstructurally small cracks was not dependent on grain size. © 1994.
Tokaji, K., Ogawa, T., & Ohya, K. (1994). The effect of grain size on small fatigue crack growth in pure titanium. International Journal of Fatigue, 16(8), 571–578. https://doi.org/10.1016/0142-1123(94)90483-9