Background: Although ginsenosides such as Rg1, Rb1 and Rg3 have shown promise as potential nutraceuticals for cognitive impairment, their use has been limited due to high production cost and low potency. In particular, the process of extracting pure Rg3 from ginseng is laborious and expensive. Methods: We described the methods in preparing ginseol k-g3, an Rg3-enriched fraction, and evaluated its effects on scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice. Results: Ginseol k-g3 (25-200 mg/kg) significantly reversed scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment in the passive avoidance, but not in Y-maze testing. Ginseol k-g3 (50 and 200 mg/kg) improved escape latency in training trials and increased swimming times within the target zone of the Morris water maze. The effect of ginseol k-g3 on the water maze task was more potent than that of Rg3 or Red ginseng. Acute or subchronic (6 d) treatment of ginseol k-g3 did not alter normal locomotor activity of mice in an open field. Ginseol k-g3 did not inhibit acetylcholinesterase activity, unlike donezepil, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. Rg3 enrichment through the ginseol k-g3 fraction enhanced the efficacy of Rg3 in scopolamineinduced memory impairment in mice as demonstrated in the Morris water maze task. Conclusion: The effects of ginseol k-g3 in ameliorating scopolamine-induced memory impairment in the passive avoidance and Morris water maze tests indicate its specific influence on reference or long-term memory. The mechanism underlying the reversal of scopolamine-induced amnesia by ginseol k-g3 is not yet known, but is not related to anticholinesterase-like activity. © 2013, The Korean Society of Ginseng, Published by Elsevier. All rights reserved.
Peña, I. D., Yoon, S. Y., Kim, H. J., Park, S., Hong, E. Y., Ryu, J. H., … Cheong, J. H. (2014). Effects of ginseol k-g3, an Rg3-enriched fraction, on scopolamine-induced memory impairment and learning deficit in mice. Journal of Ginseng Research, 38(1), 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jgr.2013.11.003