We sought to determine whether an association existed between the echocardiographic appearance of left ventricular thrombi and systemic embolization. We reviewed the clinical and echocardiographic characteristics of 60 patients who underwent diagnostic two-dimensional echocardiography for left ventricular thrombi. Sixteen of these 60 patients (27%) had evidence of systemic embolization. Multiple echocardiographic characteristics of left ventricular thrombi were analyzed, including mobility, shape, heterogeneity, echo density, layering, central echo lucency, presence within an aneurysm, and association with low-density swirling echoes. Incidence of embolization was significantly higher in patients with thrombi that were mobile or protruded into the left ventricular cavity (p less than .002 and p less than .05, respectively). Bayesian analysis indicated that the pretest likelihood for embolization was 27% and increased in the presence of mobility, central echo lucency, and protrusion to 60%, 50%, and 40%, respectively. A stepwise regression indicated that mobility was the first and protrusion the second most helpful echocardiographic characteristic in identifying patients with embolic phenomena. Clinical features were of less help in identifying the risk for embolization of patients with left ventricular thrombi. Nine of 31 patients (29%) with recent myocardial infarction (less than 3 weeks) has emboli in contrast to five of 26 patients (19%) with remote myocardial infarction (greater than 3 weeks) (p = NS). The three patients without infarction had congestive cardiomyopathy and two had emboli.
Haugland, J. M., Asinger, R. W., Mikell, F. L., Elsperger, J., & Hodges, M. (1984). Embolic potential of left ventricular thrombi detected by two-dimensional echocardiography. Circulation, 70(4), 588–598. https://doi.org/10.1161/01.CIR.70.4.588