Entry-only Automatic Fare Collection (AFC) systems are widely used in urban transports. Its main advantages include easy usability by passengers, improvement of the efficiency of revenue management, adequacy to integrate inter-modality approaches, easy cooperation between operators, systematic data collection and gathering tools, contributing to improve the planning process. This work starts with the literature review on applications of the Trip-Chaining Method (TCM) to the estimation of Origin-Destination (OD) matrices using entry-only AFC data. The main contribution of this study is to provide an OD matrix for the city of Porto, allowing to improve the quality of its public transport system. The paper reports the implementation of the TCM to estimate the alighting locations at the disaggregated level in the case study of Porto. The main assumptions adopted are: passengers start the next journey stage at or near the alighting location of their previous trip, passengers end the last trip of the day at the boarding location of the first trip of the day, passengers can only alight in the sequence of stops not yet traveled by the route / direction they boarded, passengers have a maximum interchange distance, above which the destination of that journey stage is not inferred.
Hora, J., Dias, T. G., Camanho, A., & Sobral, T. (2017). Estimation of Origin-Destination matrices under Automatic Fare Collection: The case study of Porto transportation system. In Transportation Research Procedia (Vol. 27, pp. 664–671). Elsevier B.V. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trpro.2017.12.103