Exosomes secreted from Mycobacterium avium -infected macrophages contain numerous antigens of both M. avium and the host cell and are involved in the induction and expression of the inflammatory responses in macrophages. The interaction between exosomes secreted from M. avium -infected macrophages and macrophage phagocytosis, cytokine secretion, immunostimulation, and apoptosis was analyzed. Upon stimulation with exosomes secreted from M. avium -infected macrophages, the phagocytosis of dextran by treated macrophages was increased. Furthermore, the expression of CD40, CD80, CD81, CD86, HLA-DR, and most notably CD195 was enhanced. Additionally, the secretion of IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IFN- γ , and TNF- α was increased by stimulated macrophages. Exosome stimulation did not induce macrophage apoptosis when compared with macrophages infected with M. avium . Caspase expression, including that of caspases 3, 6, and 8, was also not altered in exosome stimulated macrophages. Thus exosomes trigger the inflammatory response in macrophages owing to the presence of bacterial antigens but have no effect on macrophage viability.
Wang, J., Yao, Y., Xiong, J., Wu, J., Tang, X., & Li, G. (2015). Evaluation of the inflammatory response in macrophages stimulated with exosomes secreted by mycobacterium avium -infected macrophages. BioMed Research International, 2015. https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/658421