It is difficult, for those without experience, to operate and manipulate a mechanical excavator. There is a long learning process to gain the skills required in operating the excavator's overall swing motions as well as movements of its boom, arm and bucket. In addition it is dangerous to operate such excavators on an inclined plane as this can lead to instability and puts the operator at great risk. In this study, a simple light weight tele-operation system has been developed for the excavator for dealing with these problems. Three sensors are attached to the operator's arm, in order to detect his movements. The operating commands for the actuators of an excavator will be transmitted via Bluetooth wireless communications. The new tele-operation system developed is simple, cost effective and lighter compared to typical haptic devices using a force feedback mechanisms. The operating algorithm has been modified and verified in many test cases. Prior to testing, the algorithms have been verified using the visual simulator, OpenGL. The operating system to operate the excavator easily and safely is developed and the control algorithm verified by tests. © 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kim, D., Kim, J., Lee, K., Park, C., Song, J., & Kang, D. (2009). Excavator tele-operation system using a human arm. Automation in Construction, 18(2), 173–182. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.autcon.2008.07.002