Thermodynamic properties of bread dough (fusion enthalpy, apparent specific heat, initial freezing point and unfreezable water) were measured at temperatures from -40 °C to 35 °C using differential scanning calorimetry. The initial freezing point was also calculated based on the water activity of dough. The apparent specific heat varied as a function of temperature: specific heat in the freezing region varied from (1.7-23.1) J g-1 °C-1, and was constant at temperatures above freezing (2.7 J g-1 °C-1). Unfreezable water content varied from (0.174-0.182) g/g of total product. Values of heat capacity as a function of temperature were correlated using thermodynamic models. A modification for low-moisture foodstuffs (such as bread dough) was successfully applied to the experimental data. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.
Matuda, T. G., Pessôa Filho, P. A., & Tadini, C. C. (2011). Experimental data and modeling of the thermodynamic properties of bread dough at refrigeration and freezing temperatures. Journal of Cereal Science, 53(1), 126–132. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcs.2010.11.002