Modeling Population Dynamics of Black-tailed and Mule Deer

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Our understanding of black-tailed and mule deer population dynamics leverages broader ecological principles and many empirical studies. Mule deer show high, constant adult female survival and variable juvenile survival. Those characteristics provide the basis for a tractable mathematical model of the population process. We can employ integrated population modeling to make inference and predictions to black-tailed and mule deer populations in the face of uncertainty and missing data.




Lukacs, P. M., & Nowak, J. J. (2023). Modeling Population Dynamics of Black-tailed and Mule Deer. In Ecology and Management of Black-Tailed and Mule Deer of North America (pp. 95–102). CRC Press.

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