The brain uses computational primitives that are analogous with but qualitatively different from the computational primitives used in electronic computer systems. The primary computational primitives of the brain are described, and their implementation in anatomy and physiology discussed. Combinations and sequences of these primitives implement cognitive tasks. Many of the primitives have also been implemented electronically. The brain is a very effective general learning system, and although an artificial general intelligence system will be required to learn a different range of behaviours from the brain, the computational primitives used by the brain are the best available guide to appropriate primitives for such an AGI system.
Coward, L. A. (2014). Brain computational primitives. In Procedia Computer Science (Vol. 41, pp. 164–175). Elsevier B.V. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procs.2014.11.100