Indoor terminal units can be defined as the building elements that use different heat transfer mechanisms and media to emit and remove heat or moisture from indoor spaces (e.g. hydronic radiant heating and cooling systems, fan-coil units, active beams). Indoor temperature and humidity fields depend on the chosen terminal units. Terminal units differ in their capabilities of addressing sensible and latent loads, methods of heat emission or removal, maximum heating and cooling capacities, medium of energy distribution, and local or total volume conditioning. In the present study, operation characteristics, possibilities and limitations of different terminal units were specified. Considered terminal units were radiant heating and cooling systems, all-air systems (mixing, displacement, and personalized ventilation), passive and active beams. The results were summarized in a table, which aims at providing a reference for terminal unit selection during the design phases of HVAC systems.
Kazanci, O. B., & Olesen, B. W. (2015). IEA EBC Annex 59 - Possibilities, limitations and capacities of indoor terminal units. In Energy Procedia (Vol. 78, pp. 2427–2432). Elsevier Ltd. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2015.11.213