In this article, we review the recent progress that has been made in the field of Lewis-acid catalysis of carbon carbon-bond-forming reactions in aqueous solution. Since water hampers the hard hard interactions between the catalyst and the reactant, it often complicates catalysis. However, once coordination has taken place, water can have beneficial effects on rates and selectivities of Lewis acid catalysed Diels Alder reactions, aldol reactions, allylation reactions, Barbier and Mannich type reactions as well as Michael additions.
Engberts, J. B. F. N., Feringa, B. L., Keller, E., & Otto, S. (1996). Lewis-acid catalysis of carbon carbon bond forming reactions in water. Recueil Des Travaux Chimiques Des Pays-Bas-Journal of the Royal Netherlands, 115(11–12), 457–464. https://doi.org/10.1002/recl.19961151103