Characterization of Schistosoma japonicum tetraspanning orphan receptor and its role in binding to complement C2 and immunoprotection against murine schistosomiasis

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Abstract

Background: Schistosomiasis remains an important global public health problem, as millions of people are at risk of acquiring infection. An ideal method for sustainable control of schistosomiasis would be to develop an efficient vaccine. Schistosomes can survive in the host vascular system by immune evasion, regulating the host complement cascade. Schistosoma japonicum tetraspanning orphan receptor (SjTOR) is a complement regulator, which is a tegument membrane protein. To date there is no experimental evidence to explain the function of SjTOR. Results: We cloned the first extracellular domain of the SjTOR (SjTOR-ed1) gene and expressed the gene in Escherichia coli. The expression level of SjTOR in different developmental stages of S. japonicum was assessed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Western blotting showed that recombinant SjTOR-ed1 (rSjTOR-ed1) could be recognised by schistosome-infected mouse serum. Immunolocalization indicated that the protein was mainly distributed on the tegument of the parasite. Haemolytic assays and ELISA revealed that rSjTOR-ed1 could inhibit complement hemolysis and bind to complement C2. Purified rSjTOR-ed1 emulsified with ISA206 adjuvant could induce a significant reduction of worm burden from 24.51 to 26.51%, and liver egg numbers from 32.92 to 39.62% in two independent trials in mice. Conclusions: The results of this study indicated that rSjTOR-ed1 could inhibit complement hemolysis and bind to complement C2, and it is a potential vaccine candidate that protects against S. japonicum infection.

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Ma, S., Zai, J., Han, Y., Hong, Y., Zhang, M., Cao, X., … Fu, Z. (2017). Characterization of Schistosoma japonicum tetraspanning orphan receptor and its role in binding to complement C2 and immunoprotection against murine schistosomiasis. Parasites and Vectors, 10(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-017-2229-y

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