Facilitators and barriers to the use of standing orders for vaccination in obstetrics and gynecology settings

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Background Many young and middle-aged women receive their primary health care from their obstetrician-gynecologists. A recent change to vaccination recommendations during pregnancy has forced the integration of new clinical processes at obstetrician-gynecology practices. Evidence-based best practices for vaccination delivery include the establishment of vaccination standing orders. Objectives As part of an intervention to increase adoption of evidence-based vaccination strategies for women in safety-net and private obstetrician-gynecology settings, we conducted a qualitative study to identify the facilitators and barriers experienced by obstetrician-gynecology sites when establishing vaccination standing orders. Study Design At 6 safety-net and private obstetrician-gynecology practices, 51 semistructured interviews were completed by trained qualitative researchers over 2 years with clinical staff and vaccination program personnel. Standardized qualitative research methods were used during data collection and team-based data analysis to identify major themes and subthemes within the interview data. Results All study practices achieved partial to full implementation of vaccine standing orders for human papillomavirus, tetanus diphtheria pertussis, and influenza vaccines. Facilitating factors for vaccine standing order adoption included process standardization, acceptance of a continual modification process, and staff training. Barriers to vaccine standing order adoption included practice- and staff-level competing demands, pregnant women's preference for medical providers to discuss vaccine information with them, and staff hesitation in determining HPV vaccine eligibility. Conclusions With guidance and commitment to integration of new processes, obstetrician-gynecology practices are able to establish vaccine standing orders for pregnant and nonpregnant women. Attention to certain process barriers can aid the adoption of processes to support the delivery of vaccinations in obstetrician-gynecology practice setting, and provide access to preventive health care for many women.




Barnard, J. G., Dempsey, A. F., Brewer, S. E., Pyrzanowski, J., Mazzoni, S. E., & O’Leary, S. T. (2017). Facilitators and barriers to the use of standing orders for vaccination in obstetrics and gynecology settings. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 216(1), 69.e1-69.e7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2016.09.096

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