Combined dystonias: clinical and genetic updates

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The genetic combined dystonias are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of neurologic disorders defined by the overlap of dystonia and other movement disorders such as parkinsonism or myoclonus. The number of genes associated with combined dystonia syndromes has been increasing due to the wider recognition of clinical features and broader use of genetic testing. Nevertheless, these diseases are still rare and represent only a small subgroup among all dystonias. Dopa-responsive dystonia (DYT/PARK-GCH1), rapid-onset dystonia-parkinsonism (DYT/PARK-ATP1A3), X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism (XDP, DYT/PARK-TAF1), and young-onset dystonia-parkinsonism (DYT/PARK-PRKRA) are monogenic combined dystonias accompanied by parkinsonian features. Meanwhile, MYC/DYT-SGCE and MYC/DYT-KCTD17 are characterized by dystonia in combination with myoclonus. In the past, common molecular pathways between these syndromes were the center of interest. Although the encoded proteins rather affect diverse cellular functions, recent neurophysiological evidence suggests similarities in the underlying mechanism in a subset. This review summarizes recent developments in the combined dystonias, focusing on clinico-genetic features and neurophysiologic findings. Disease-modifying therapies remain unavailable to date; an overview of symptomatic therapies for these disorders is also presented.




Weissbach, A., Saranza, G., & Domingo, A. (2021, April 1). Combined dystonias: clinical and genetic updates. Journal of Neural Transmission. Springer.

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