Dendritic cells (DCs) are the major cells responsible for the uptake and the transport of antigens to regional lymphoid tissues and for the presentation of antigenic peptides to T cells. They are highly effective in immunotherapy. However, in lymphoid and other tissues, DCs constitute only a small population and are difficult to isolate in large numbers. Our objective was to devise a method with which to rapidly expand splenic DCs in vivo. We accomplished this by intramuscular injection of plasmids encoding mouse granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and fms-like tyrosine kinase 3-ligand (FLT3-L). Gene transfer was amplified by electroporation. Both cytokine vectors significantly increased DC numbers, but they were more effective in combination. When either control plasmid (Blank), or FLT3-L or GM-CSF expression plasmids were injected individually, the mean numbers of CD11c+/MHC II+ DCs in spleen cell suspensions were, respectively, 6, 11, and 23 million. When FLT3-L and GM-CSF plasmids were codelivered, this increased to 36 million. Peak levels occurred 7 days postinjection of DNA. To further characterize these DCs, we stained them with myeloid (CD11b, F4/80)- and lymphoid (CD8α)-related markers. FLT3-L cDNA favored lymphoid DC expansion and GM-CSF cDNA favored myeloid DC expansion, whereas combined treatment expanded both types with a myeloid predominance. We confirm the ability of these DCs to present antigen to CD4+ T cells and to stimulate in mixed lymphocyte cultures. We demonstrate that DCs can be rapidly expanded by this simple gene transfer method, which has numerous potential applications.
Peretz, Y., Zhou, Z. F., Halwani, F., & Prud’homme, G. J. (2002). In vivo generation of dendritic cells by intramuscular codelivery of FLT3 ligand and GM-CSF plasmids. Molecular Therapy, 6(3), 407–414. https://doi.org/10.1006/mthe.2002.0677