Cyclically, during the day, increased permeability of the intestinal epithelial barrier, allowing nutrient uptake, must be compensated for, to achieve increased protection against potentially harmful components. Seillet et al. demonstrate that, upon food intake, enteric neuron-derived VIP promotes anticipatory mucosal immunity by inducing ILC3s to produce protective IL-22.
Quatrini, L., Moretta, L., & Mingari, M. C. (2020, May 1). ILC3s: Rhythmic Keepers of Gut Integrity at Mealtime. Trends in Immunology. Elsevier Ltd. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.it.2020.03.011