Two studies were conducted to examine the effects of ice slushy ingestion (ICE) and cold water immersion (CWI) on thermoregulatory and sweat responses during constant (study 1) and self-paced (study 2) exercise. In study 1, 11 men cycled at 40–50% of peak aerobic power for 60 min (33.2 ± 0.3C, 45.9 ± 0.5% relative humidity, RH). In study 2, 11 men cycled for 60 min at perceived exertion (RPE) equivalent to 15 (33.9 ± 0.2C and 42.5 ± 3.9%RH). In both studies, each trial was preceded by 30 min of CWI (~22C), ICE or no cooling (CON). Rectal temperature (T re ), skin temperature (T sk ), thermal sensation, and sweat responses were measured. In study 1, ICE decreased T re- T sk gradient versus CON (p = 0.005) during first 5 min of exercise, while CWI increased T re- T sk gradient versus CON and ICE for up to 20 min during the exercise (p<0.05). In study 2, thermal sensation was lower in CWI versus CON and ICE for up to 35–40 min during the exercise (p<0.05). ICE reduced thermal sensation versus CON during the first 20 min of exercise (p<0.05). In study 2, CWI improved mean power output (MPO) by ~8 W, compared with CON only (p = 0.024). In both studies, CWI (p<0.001) and ICE (p = 0.019) delayed sweating by 1–5 min but did not change the body temperature sweating threshold, compared with CON (both p>0.05). Increased T re -T sk gradient by CWI improved MPO while ICE reduced T re but did not confer any ergogenic effect. Both precooling treatments attenuated the thermal efferent signals until a specific body temperature threshold was reached.
Choo, H. C., Peiffer, J. J., Lopes-Silva, J. P., Mesquita, R. N. O., Amano, T., Kondo, N., & Abbiss, C. R. (2019). Effect of ice slushy ingestion and cold water immersion on thermoregulatory behavior. PLoS ONE, 14(2). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0212966