Immune activation in HIV-1-infected individuals is reduced under antiretroviral therapies, but persists, resulting in various morbidities. To better characterize this phenomenon, using a panel of 68 soluble and cell surface markers, we measured the level of activation in circulating CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, B cells, monocytes, NK cells, polynuclear and endothelial cells as well as of inflammation and fibrinolysis in 120 virologic responders over 45 years of age. As compared with age- and sex-matched uninfected individuals, we observed a persistence of activation in all the cell subpopulations analyzed, together with marks of inflammation and fibrinolysis. Two independent hierarchical clustering analyses allowed us to identify five clusters of markers that varied concurrently, and five patient groups, each with the same activation profile. The five groups of patients could be characterized by a marker of CD4+ T cell, CD8+ T cell, NK cell, monocyte activation or of inflammation, respectively. One of these profiles was strongly associated with marks of metabolic syndrome, particularly with hyperinsulinemia (OR 12.17 [95% CI 1.79-82.86], p = 0.011). In conclusion, our study unveils biomarkers linked to metabolic syndrome that could be tested as predictive markers, and opens the way to new therapeutic approaches tailored to each patient group.
Psomas, C., Younas, M., Reynes, C., Cezar, R., Portalès, P., Tuaillon, E., … Corbeau, P. (2016). One of the immune activation profiles observed in HIV-1-infected adults with suppressed viremia is linked to metabolic syndrome: The ACTIVIH study. EBioMedicine, 8, 265–276. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ebiom.2016.05.008